Citrus Fruits

Citrus fruit (hesperidium), is a specialized berry with a leathery rind or peel. Citrus fruits have thick, finely dimpled peels and the flesh inside is divided into segments filled with small juice-filled sacs.  the peel and the interior have very different flavors, structures, and culinary uses. the peel inner part of the peel, or pith, is white, spongy, and fairly dry. The deeply colored smooth skin on the outside contains extremely fragrant oils that are used to flavor foods with their aromas and flavors.

Citron (Citrus medica)

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit
Native region(s): Asia – China
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle: perennial
Appearance: Citron plant grows up to almost 12 feet and has spiny spreading branches with large pale green leaves and flowers that are purple on the outside and white on the inside. Citron fruit is a large oval or oblong, lemon-shaped fruit, up to 8 inches long, with thick, knobby greenish skin. The juicy, citron flesh is bitter and unpalatable. The outer layer of the rind is thin, greenish yellow, and fragrant; the inner part is thick, white, and fleshy. The pulp inside the rind is firm and somewhat dry, can be sour or sweet, usually used for by-products.
Aroma: citron peel is citrus, turpentine, pine, lemon, floral.
Taste: sour
Flavor: intense, sour flavor, not very juicy
Nutritional value: vitamin C, potassium
Culinary uses: pulp is typically not eaten because it is very bitter. Juice used as lemon juice, though citrons are not very juicy, peel is candied, made into marmalade, or cured in brine.

 

 

Grapefruit (Citrus xpradisi)

hybrid of shaddock (Citrus grandis).

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit
Native region(s): probably Barbados
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle: perennial
Appearance: grapefruit tree grows up to 20 feet high. it has dense foliage, dark, shiny green leaves and large white flowers. Most grapefruits have deep yellow skins, and flesh that ranges in color from pale yellow to pink. In general, the pinker the color, the sweeter the grapefruit.
Aroma: Grapefruit peel has a fresh, green, floral, eucalyptus, woody-grapefruit aroma. Grapefruit juice has a fruity, coconut, grassy, woody, grapefruit, sulfurous, catty, aroma.
Taste: sweet, sour
Flavor: pulp is tender, very juicy, with a distinctive mildly acidic flavor, peel is bitter.
Nutritional value: vitamins A & C, antioxidants, potassium, fiber
Culinary uses: Grapefruit is eaten raw, juiced, in salads, salad dressings, sorbets, and the peel can be candied or coated in chocolate.

 

Kumquats (Citrus japonica)

Kumquats are not true citrus fruits, they belong to a similar species, Fortunella.

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit
Native region(s): eastern Asia 
Climate: subtropical
Life cycle: perennial
Appearance:
Kumquat trees can grow to be 12 feet high. they have glossy dark green leaves and white flowers. The fruits are bright orange-yelllow and round or oval, about the size a large olive. They have thin, bright orange skin which is edible. They are sour and juicy, with seeds inside. The bitter rind is also edible. Kumquats are eaten whole, sliced in salads, fruit salads, made into syrup, marmalade, jam, dipped in bittersweet chocolate, or cooked with fish, poultry, or white meats.
Aroma: citrus, resinous, pine, waxy, floral.
Taste: sour, sweet
Flavor: tart, mildly acid juicy pulp, edible skin that’s sweet, pulpy skin
Nutritional value: vitamins A & C, antioxidants, fiber
Culinary uses: eaten raw and cooked, eaten whole fresh, sliced in salads, fruit salads, made into syrup, marmalade, jam, jelly, candied, dipped in bittersweet chocolate, or cooked with fish, poultry, or white meats.

 

 

Lemon (Citrus limon)

 

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit
Native region(s): India, Malaysia
Climate:  tropical, subtropical
Life cycle: perennial
Appearance: lemon trees or bushes can grow up to 20 feet high. they have oval leaves with a reddish tint that turn green. Lemon fruits are small oval spheres with glossy, yellow skin and juicy, pale yellow sections of succulent, sour flesh. Lemons taste lemony, tart, acidic, sharp, fresh, refreshing, and cleansing. the outer rind, or peel, is yellow when ripe and dotted with oil glands. the white and spongy pith  (mesocarp) is a large source of commercial pectin (used for making fruit jellies. the seeds are small, pointed, and ovoid.
Aroma: floral, citrus, pine, and lemon. lemon peel is citrus pine, turpentine, lemon, floral.
Taste: sour
Flavor: acidic, astringent, lemony
Nutritional value: vitamins B & C, potassium, fiber
Culinary uses: eaten raw and cooked. usually eaten raw but not whole, used to flavor sauces, dressings, and desserts. lemon provides citric acid, lemon oil, and pectin. the oil is used in flavoring extract, perfumes, and soap. citric acid is used in beverage manufacturing, and pectin is used in making fruit jellies.

 

Lime (Citrus xlatifolia – Persian, C. xaurantifolia – Mexican)

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruits, lime oil, citrate of lime and citric acid
Native region(s): India
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle:
perennial
Appearance:
True citrus fruits, smallish green spheres with smooth, green skin and highly aromatic zest and juice that has a sour, acidic, fresh, refreshing, cleansing taste.
Aroma: Mexican lime peel is citrus, turpentine, pine, resinous, woody, lemon, floral. Persian, Tahiti, Bearss lime peel is citrus, turpentine, pine, resin, lemon, herbal floral.
Taste: sour
Flavor: bright, tart, acidic taste with a hint of sweetness, juicy
Nutritional value: vitamin C, antioxidants, fiber
Culinary uses: eaten raw, concentrated, dried, frozen, canned, in pickles, chutneys, juice, dinks. Limes are essential in Southeast Asian and Latin American cooking.

 

 

Mandarin Orange (C. reticulata)

Mandarin oranges include tangerines, sweet oranges, and sour or bitter or Seville oranges. They are slightly flat in shape and have aromatic, loose skin making them easy to peel.

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit – modified berry (hesperidium – the flesh is divided into segments called carpels)
Native region(s): Asia – China
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle: perennial
Appearance: flattened, Mandarins are citrus fruits that tend to be easy to peel and separate the sections. Mandarin trees are usually smaller than sweet orange trees. Mandarins are smaller and sweeter than common oranges, and not as round, more oblate in shape. The peel is thin and loose, easy to peel. It’s usually orange, sometimes with a tinge of red or yellow. Mandarin peel has a floral, fatty, sweet, pine, metallic, citrus aroma. Mandarin juice has a fresh, fruity, resinous, floral aroma. Tangerines, clementines, and satsuma are all types of mandarins. Tangerines are named for the port of Tangiers in Morocco. The satsuma mandarin originated in Japan. leathery, oily rinds and juicy inner flesh
Aroma: mandarin peel is floral, fatty, sweet, pine, metallic, citrus. mandarin juice is fresh, fruity, resinous, floral.
Taste: sweet, sour
Flavor: sweet, orange, vanilla, spicy
Nutritional value: vitamins A & C, antioxidants, fiber, high water content
Culinary uses: usually eaten raw, fresh as fruits, in salads, desserts, main dishes, juice, canned, peel is used to flavor baked goods, drinks, and candy.

 

Orange (Citrus xsinensis)

sweet oranges varieties include navel, blood orange, valencia. bitter oranges include Seville or Bigarade.

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit
Native region(s): Asia – China
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle:
perennial
Appearance:
Oranges are citrus fruits that grow on trees. The round fruits vary in size and can be orange, yellow, or green in color with a leathery rind filled with fragrant volatile oils. Under the orange skin is a layer of soft, white, bitter pith. The pulpy flesh inside is split into sections that are extremely juicy. There are several types of oranges, namely the common sweet orange, the mandarin orange, and the sour orange. The aroma of sweet orange peel is citrus, geranium, pine, floral, and green. The aroma of sweet orange juice is fruity, fruity, citrus, sweet, green, and floral. The aroma of sour orange peel is citrus, resinous, floral, and pine. The aroma of sour orange juice is citrus, pine, floral, and turpentine.
Aroma: sour orange peel is citrus, resinous, floral, pine. sour orange juice is citrus, pine, floral, turpentine. sweet orange peel is citrus, geranium, pine, floral, green. sweeet orange juice is fruity, citrus, sweet, green, floral.
Taste: sweet, sour
Flavor: range from sweet to sour or bitter, juicy
Nutritional value: vitamin C, high water content
Culinary uses: sweet oranges are eaten raw, bitter oranges are not. bitter oranges are made into marmalade, jams, and jellies, or cooked with duck. in the south of France, sour oranges and their flowers are distilled to make aromatic oranage-flower water.

 

Pomelo, Shaddock (Citrus maxima)

The name shaddocks is after the sea captain who brought them from Malaysia to the West Indies.

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
fruit
Native region(s): Southeast Asia
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle:
perennial
Appearance:
Pomelos are larger than grapefruit, up to 10 inches across, and have thick, yellow, dimpled skin and pinkish yellow flesh. Despite their large size, pomelos are surpisingly light because much of the fruit’s volume is spongy peel tissue.
Aroma: Pomelo peel has a citrus, floral, pine aroma. Pomelo juice has a pine, fatty, lemon, rose, waxy, floral, woody-grapefruit aroma.
Taste: sour
Flavor:sour, sharp, refreshing, similar to grapefruit but milder and sweeter.
Nutritional value: vitamins B & C, antioxidants, potassium, copper, fiber
Culinary uses:  usually eaten raw, as fresh fruit, in fruit salads, juiced, marmalade, candy, marinades

 

Tangerines or Mandarins (Citrus reticulata or Citrus tangerina)

Tangerines are often viewed as a variety of mandarin orange. The name comes from the name given to mandarins that come from Tangiers. Clementine, satsuma, mandarin, oranique, tangelo, and mineola are varieties that have sweet-tart juice. Tangerines or mandarins are citrus fruits that tend to be easy to peel and separate the sections.

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s): specialized berry with a leathery rind or peel (hesperidium, citrus fruit)
Native region(s): Southeast Asia
Climate: tropical, subtropical
Life cycle: perennial
Appearance: Mandarin trees are usually smaller than sweet orange trees. Mandarins are smaller and sweeter than common oranges, and not as round, more oblate in shape. The peel is thin and loose, easy to peel. It’s usually orange, sometimes with a tinge of red or yellow. Tangerine is a small, thin skinned mandarin orange that grows on a tree that is smaller than other orange trees. A tangelo is a tangerine-grapefruit mix.
Aroma: Mandarin peel has a floral, fatty, sweet, pine, metallic, citrus aroma. Mandarin juice has a fresh, fruity, resinous, floral aroma.
Taste: sweet, tangy
Flavor: juicy, flavorful
Nutritional value: vitamins A & C, antioxidants, fiber, high water content
Culinary uses: usually eaten raw, fresh as whole fruits, juice, jelly, canned.

 

 

Ugli Fruit (Citrus reticulata x paradisi)

Also called Jamaican tangelo

Family: Rutaceae
Edible part(s):
specialized berry with a leathery rind or peel (hesperidium, citrus fruit)
Native region: Jamaica
Climate:
tropical, subtropical
Life cycle:
perennial
Appearance:
Ugli fruit is a hybrid of a grapefruit, orange and tangerine. It is large and has baggy, mottled green skin and a sweet taste.
Aroma: lemony
Taste: sweet
Flavor: sweet with a mix of grapefruit and tangerine flavors
Nutritional value: vitamin C, potassium, calcium, folate, fiber, high water content
Culinary uses: eaten raw or cooked, as fresh fruit, juice, or candied peel.